Robards, J.W. (2013) openpop.org, 11 November 2013. [ONS LS]
Other information: Extract:
Over the last decade England and Wales has seen an increase in the total fertility rate (TFR) from a low of 1.63 in 2001 to 1.9 in recent years. While the TFR measures the current quantum of childbearing it can be influenced by changes in the timing of childbearing. Potential drivers of the increase in the TFR include increasing fertility among older women, increasing fertility among women in their 20s and possible influence from government benefits (e.g. tax credits and maternity and paternity leave) (ONS, 2013).
It is also possible that immigration to England and Wales has influenced the TFR because migration and fertility can be considered as being interrelated events (Sobotka, 2008). Immigration increased through this time period with varying countries of origin and drivers of immigration (geopolitical instability/armed conflict and globalisation in the realms of education and employment). Immigration accelerated further after the accession of eight Central and Eastern European countries (‘accession eight’ countries), along with Cyprus and Malta, to the European Union in 2004. Immigration can impact on fertility in at least three ways.