Ethnicity and neighbourhood attainment in England and Wales
Zuccotti, C.V. (2018) CALLS Hub conference, University of St Andrews, UK, 23 March 2018 [ONS LS]
Most of the research advocated to the study of ethnic minorities’ spatial segregation in the UK, and the links between neighbourhood ethnic segregation and deprivation, has followed a macro perspective, focusing on segregation indices, internal migration trends and spatial correlations of various kinds. While these studies are fundamental for understanding ethnic minorities’ spatial patters, they are not sufficient for understanding the relationship between ethnic and spatial inequalities. One of the key interests of researchers advocated to the study of (in)equality of outcomes (of any kind, including those related to the neighbourhood) across groups, is whether and to what extent these inequalities hold after we consider (in)equality of individual and social origin characteristics. In this study, I use a large-scale longitudinal dataset of England and Wales covering a 40-year period (1971-2011), in combination with aggregated Census data, to address this issue. Specifically, I study whether ethnic minorities reside or move to less concentrated and less deprived neighbourhoods (in 2011) to a similar extent as the white British do, once individual and social origin factors –which play a role in neighbourhood choice–, have been taken into consideration. Furthermore, I explore whether this varies depending on their levels of achieved socio-economic and cultural capital characteristics (measured in 2001) and their varied the characteristics of their neighbourhoods in youth (measured when they are between 0 and 15 years old). The study focuses solely on groups that are born and/or mostly raised in destination, and concentrates on the most numerous non-white populations: Indian, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Caribbean and African. The analysis shows that, on equality of individual, social background and origin neighbourhood characteristics, ethnic minorities are less likely to live in whiter and less deprived areas compared to the white British. These differences, however, reduce (although do not disappear) for most groups among those with more education and a higher social class. The results also show that the effect of origin neighbourhood is stronger for most ethnic minorities, in particular Pakistanis and Bangladeshis, suggesting that they are less likely to “improve” their neighbourhood both in terms of the share of white population and in terms of the deprivation level, compared to the white British. The implications of these results in terms of ethnic minorities’ preferences (and constrains) in the process of neighbourhood choice are discussed.
April 8 - April 9, 2019 at Queen's University, Belfast